Art. 56 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 lays down that:
- 1. The King is the Head of State and Supreme Commander in Chief of the armed forces, the symbol of its unity and permanence. He arbitrates and moderates the regular working of the institutions, assumes the highest representation of the Spanish State in international relations, especially with those nations belonging to the same historic community, and performs the functions expressly conferred on him by the Constitution and the law.
- 2. His title is King of Spain, and he may use the other titles appertaining to the Crown.
- 3. The person of the King is inviolable and shall not be held accountable. His acts shall always be countersigned in the manner established in Article 64. Without such countersignature they shall not be valid, except as provided under Article 65,2.
Art. 57 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 lays down that:
- 1. The Crown of Spain shall be inherited by the successors of H.M. Juan Carlos I de Borbon, the legitimate heir of the historic dynasty. Succession to the throne shall follow the regular order of primogeniture and representation, in the following order of precedence: the earlier shall precede the more distant; within the same degree, the male shall precede the female; and for the same sex, the older shall precede the younger.
Art. 62 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 lays down that
it is incumbent upon the King:
- a) to sanction the laws and promulgate them;
- b) to summon and dissolve the Cortes Generales and to call elections;
- c) to call a referendum;
- d) to propose a candidate for President of the Government and, as the case may be, appoint him or remove him from office;
- e) to appoint and dismiss members of the Government;
- f) to issue the decrees agreed upon by the Council of Ministers, to confer civil and military employments and award honours and distinctions;
- g) to keep himself informed regarding affairs of State and, for this purpose, to preside over the meetings of the Council of Ministers whenever he deems opportune;
- h) to exercise supreme command of the Armed Forces;
- i) to exercise the right to grant pardons;
- j) to exercise the High Patronage of the Royal Academies.
Art. 63 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 lays down that:
- 1. The King accredits ambassadors and other diplomatic representatives. Foreign representatives in Spain are accredited to him.
- 2. It is incumbent on the King to express the State’s assent to the entering into of international commitments through treaties.
- 3. It is incumbent on the King, after authorization by the Cortes Generales, to declare war and to make peace.